16 March 2018

AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS

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AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF PARENT ON PUPILS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE
(A CASE STUDY OF IFE-CENTRAL LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN OSUN STATE)

https://www.educationinfo.com.ng/2018/03/an-investigationinto-influence-of-socio-economics-status-of-parent-on-pupils-acedemics-performance.html

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
All glory honour, power, praises and adoration unto the almighty God, the Father and our lord Jesus Christ for his protection, Mercy and guidance, The Ancient of days, who make away for me where there seems to be no way God of “ Koseunty” am grateful.
            My immeasurable appreciation goes to my project supervisor Dr. MrsAromolaran for his effort and patience in reading through my project. It shall be well with you In Jesus Name (Amen), Also Mr. Are AboladeTaiwo who patently guided me and pungently made necessary corrections without compromising the academic standard in the course of the write up of the project, MAyAlmighty God continue to enrich you all the day of your life. 
            My Appreciation also goes to the head of the department Mrs. Ajayi O.J for their excellent assistance offered during the course of the study.
            My special thank also goes to my Lovely, Precious Brother Mr. OlufemiAgboola that special to me as my father taking good care of me when I need of him, every thing you lay your hand upon shall be successful in the name of Almighty God and you will eat the fruit of your Labour INJ (Amen).
            I am strongly more to re-count the financial support of my faithful and loving Daddy Late Pa Joseph Agboola and also appreciate the effort of my loving and caring mother (Abiyamotooto)  in person of Mrs. Ebunlomo Alice Agboola for their prayer and support understanding and positive counseling during the course.
            Also My mother in the lord Mummy Aleluyah, Evan. Olusola for her guidance and prayer since the beginning of the course.
            Also to all my Biological sister and my friends BolanleIbitoye, Nike Oyetude, IbukunAdemola, OyelamiiAkinwumi, Oyelami Victoria, OlaniyiBunmi, OmoniyiKehinde (Last Born) Adeola for their great support, I pray that God Almighty will continue to bless the work of your hands.
Finally my appreciation goes to my entire course mates in the great department of Primary Education like person of Akinwumi, Bisola, Bunmi, Kehinde, Grace, Boseand to others who had contributed towards making this endeavour a success, I register my profound gratitude.
            I acknowledge with deep apperception and immense contribution of my indispensable companioning person Mr. OlufemiAgboola, May God continue Enrich you all the day of your life.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
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Title Page-    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -I
Certification-           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           II
Dedication-   -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -III
Acknowledgement- -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -IV
Table of Content-    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -VI
Abstract-      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -XI
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION-    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -1
1.1       Background to the Study-      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -2
1.2       Statement of the Problem-      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -7
1.3       Purpose of the Study- -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -8
1.4       Objectives of the Study-        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -8
1.5       Research Questions-  -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -9
1.6       Research Hypothesis.-            -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -9
1.7.      Scope of the Study-    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -10
1.8.      Significance of the Study-      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -10
1.9       Operational Definition of Terms-      -           -           -           -           -           -           -11
CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW-     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -13
2.1 Introduction-         -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -13
2.2       Meaning of Socio-Economic Status in Relation to Academic Performance of Pupils-13
2.3       Impact of Parental Education on pupils Academic Performance-      -           -           -15
2.4       Social and Cultural Factors on Pupils Academic Performance-        -           -           -18
2.5       Effect of School Type on Academic Achievement of Pupils-           -           -           -19
2.6       Effect of Parents Income and Occupation on Pupil’s Academic Achievement-       -21
2.7       Effect of Family Background on Pupils Academic Achievement-   -           -           -24
2.8       Possible Solutions to the Problem Above-      -           -           -           -           -           -28
2.9       Summary on Literature Review-        -           -           -           -           -           -           29
CHAPTER THREE
3.0       RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1       INTRODUCTION-    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -30
3.2       RESEARCH DESIGN-         -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -30
3.3       POPULATION AND SAMPLYING TECHNIQUES-       -           -           -           -30
3.4       RESEARCH INSTRUMENT-          -           -           -           -                       -           -30
3.5       VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF RESEARCH INSTRUMENT-       -           -31
3.6       DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE         -           -           -           -           -           -31
3.7       SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES-        -           -           -           -           -32
3.5       INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION-         -           -           -           -           -32
3.6       VALIDATION OF THE INSTRUMENT--  -           -           -           -           -           -33
3.7       RELIABILITY OF THE INSTRUMENT-   -           -           -           -           -           -33
3.8       METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION-        -           -           -           -           -           -33
3.9       METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS-  -           -           -           -           -           -           -34
CHAPTER FOUR
4.1       DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION-         -           -           -           -           36
4.2       DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS BY SEX-      -           -           -           -36
4.3       TESTING OF HYPOTHESIS-          -           -           -           -           -           -           -43
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CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Introduction-         -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -58
5.2 Summary-  -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -59
5.3 Conclusion-           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -59
5.4       Recommendations.-    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -61
REFERENCES-         -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -63
APPENDIX-  -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -64




ABSTRACT
This paper explores the issue of parental socio-economic status on students’ academic achievement in primary school, the relationship between home-based environment factors and the academic performance of students in selected secondary schools within a local government area in Osun State is investigated. Samples were obtained with fifty (50) students randomly selected from five primary schools. The four factors that were examined and statistically analyzed were: parental socio-economic background, parental educational background, parental educational qualification and students’ health statuses. Diverse statistical tests were performed on the various data collected to establish statistical significance of the effects on pupils’ academic performance. Parental socio-economic status and parental educational background have significant effect on the academic performance of the students. However, the parental educational qualification and health status of the students were identified to have statistical significant effect on the academic performance of the pupils. The two variables that indicated significant influence do reflect nature of the pupilshome environment and played notable role in the academic achievement of the respondents. Government could intervene to raise level of academic achievement among students, the socio-economic status of schools should be considered when determining government grant allocation to schools with such pupils. This will enable such schools to bridge the gap of inequality and enable them to produce the necessary teaching and learning materials and put up the necessary interventions such as remedial education, The findings of the study are expected to help education policy makers, head teachers, teachers, parents and other stakeholders to emphasize the incorporation of instructional strategies to improve pupils’ performance.


 CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1               Background to the Study
Education is a fundamental instrument for enhancing the quality of human life and ensuring social and economic progress (UN, 1999). Further, instruction is a vital component to making, embracing and spreading learning. In such manner, the World Bank Development Report 1998-1999) takes note of that the increases in access to instruction have been unevenly conveyed with the poor once in a while getting what's coming to them (World Bank 1998). As indicated by the World Bank (2002), formal instruction makes an impressive commitment to the monetary and social improvement. Instruction is critical in: Promoting monetary development and upgrading profitability, diminishing destitution through individual income, decreasing craving and hunger, advancing sexual orientation value and engaging ladies and in conclusion lessening kid death rates. 
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The effect of parental financial status on student's scholarly execution is a noteworthy worry in training improvement in numerous creating nations. As indicated by UNESCO (2010), the objectives of Education for All (EFA) and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), casual procedures to enhance financial status are fundamental in order to enhance execution in examinations. The Government of is focused on guaranteeing the arrangement of Education For All by 2015 and Universal Primary Education (UPE) by 2005 (UNESCO, 2010).The Government has set up strategies outfitted towards accomplishing this objective. These incorporate the abrogation of client charges in essential training in 2003, extension and change of arrangement of framework in schools, among others (G.O.K, 2011). Regardless of these mediations, still understudies keep on registering poor execution in examinations. The service of State for Planning, National Development and Vision 2030 out of 2005 uncovered that over 56% of Nigerians are living underneath the neediness. This, hence, implies they can't get to even the most fundamental necessities for their kids. What's more, the hole between the rich and the poor is quickly extending (East Africa Standard, 2005).Most of the students dropping out of school are from poor foundation and the proficiency of educationalsystem has been declining at a disturbing rate yet the Government is conferred towards the arrangement of value and quality instruction. 

The execution of understudies in grade schools has been exceptionally troubling for quite a long while. Numerous schools are very much reported to create the lower rank schools in national examinations each logbook year. (National Examinations Council, 2011).Despite government endeavors to guarantee value and access to all in training; poor outcomes keep on being a noteworthy obstacle to access of essential instruction. Understudies' execution in school has not been great for various years and has contributed towards the poor outcomes. This situation is shown by the information given beneath. 

The connection between family financial status (SES) and the scholastic accomplishment of Pupils is settled in sociological research. While there is contradiction over the most ideal approach to gauge financial status, an investigation by (Adams, 2012) found that Pupils from low financial foundations don't execute and also they possibly could at school contrasted with kids from high financial foundations. Most investigations, in any case, analyze Pupils from over all financial foundations to achieve the conclusion that low financial status antagonistically influences a scope of instructive outcomes(Amendo, &Wanjiru, 2010). Another vital measurement, be that as it may, is the elements that may impact instructive results withinparticular financial status groups. A standout amongst the most wrangled about issues among instructive experts is the connection between's the scholarly accomplishment and financial status of Pupils. A predominant contention is that the financial status of Pupilshas a noteworthy impact on his/her scholastic accomplishment. 

Numerous teachers surmise that low financial status makes a negative impact on scholarly accomplishment. Adams (1996) said that the essential needs of specific students are not being met, therefore not enabling the understudies to physically or rationally have the capacity to perform in school. In the event that kids are not legitimately bolstered or given appropriate cleanliness mind, they can't be relied upon to perform effectively in their scholastics. These ecological inadequacies are thought by teachers to negatively affect the youngsters picture, and result in a bringing down of confidence. This absence of certainty encroaches on the achievement an understudy may have in the scholarly condition (Ayoo, 2012). Others challenge this hypothesis and suggest that different factors outside the financial status of a youngsters are the deciding element in scholastic execution (Bracey, 2014). This exploration wants to produce information on the instructive accomplishment of students from various financial foundations and look at its variety as influenced by conventional measures of social-monetary factor and in addition by a scope of other family, individual and logical components. Pupilsachievement in broad daylight elementary schools has turned into a best need for guardians and government. The imprints that an understudy's score manages the kind of school the understudies is probably going to be enlisted (Borg,& Gall, 2008). Numerous educators, guardians and overseers sit tight enthusiastically for the outcomes. There have been numerous examinations that tried to look at financial elements influencing scholarly execution of understudies. A large portion of those investigations have concentrated on pupilsacademic execution. In any case, since social contrasts may assume a part in molding the elements that influence pupilsperformance, it is vital to look at the importance of these elements. Overall examinations uncover that the financial variables that contrarily influence understudy's execution incorporate among others neediness, instructive foundation, word related classes and pay level of guardians, indiscipline, pregnancy, school write and destructive social practices (Crane, 2014). 

The difficulties confronting training are all around reported (Creswell, 2009). Be that as it may, it is correlated to feature some approach issues. Different accomplices in the advancement of instruction including family units have been putting intensely in training since 1963. The use in instruction remains at more than 35 for every penny of optional consumptions. Essential training gets around 55% of the sectoral intermittent spending plan. Existing overviews too demonstrate that under the cost-sharing approach, family units have kept on meeting expanding expenses of instruction of their youngsters. A normal family living in a urban setting spends around 30-40 for each penny of their pay on training, while a normal family in a country setting spends up to 60 for every penny. Even with the cost-sharing strategy, families should meet around 95% of school intermittent use as course readings, stationery, furniture, school uniform, movement expenses and examination, among others. With the abnormal state of frequency of neediness most guardians have neglected to meet this commitment in this manner influencing the instructive results. Their commitment has not adequately filled the asset hole made by the usage of the cost-sharing approach (Dalaker, and Proctor, 2006). 
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Abnormal state of absence of education, neediness and low financial status combined with high rate of fatherly and maternal hardship of understudy scholarly needs, has tossed numerous agriculturists and old provincial inhabitants into untold budgetary issues, for example, destitution, absence of cash to buy fundamental course readings and working materials for their children. Likewise numerous provincial and rural inhabitants can never again pay the school expenses (Dee, Thomas 2007).Hence, numerous understudies have since taken tutoring as an optional task and school participation on rotational premise. The resultant issue postured by this, is poor scholastic execution in examinations. This pattern is posturing gigantic issues to guardians, governments and partners in training. An investigation by (Dorsey, 2013).inMeru South District found that the scholastic accomplishment of grade school understudies was influenced by understudy's engagement in insignificant exchanging, road selling, cultivating and keeping an eye on school hours to moderate the levels of destitution. This examination will look to decide if these components influence understudies' execution. 

From the above, it is apparent that the nature of guardians and home foundation of an understudy goes far to anticipate the quality and normality of the fulfillment and arrangement of a kid's utilitarian survival and scholarly needs. Poor parental care with net hardship of social and monetary needs of a tyke, for the most part yield poor scholastic execution of the kid. Then again, where a kid endures parental and material hardship and care because of separation or demise, or fleeing of one of the guardians, the kid's tutoring might be influenced as the mother alone may not be monetarily light to pay school expense, buy books and regalia, such a youngster may play truant, in this manner his exhibitions in school might be unfavorably influenced (Eamon, 2009). Correspondingly, great child rearing bolstered by solid monetary home foundation could upgrade solid scholastic execution of the kid. This further predicts scholastic execution where the youngster is appropriately directed in the selection of his/her courses and business that matches his psychological capacity, intrigue and ability while the kids to the care of the ignorant moms will wind up wandering about thestreet working to bring home the bacon. In light of different variables that may impact examination execution and the changed foundation of understudies who take examinations in any given year, forecasts of the nature of training and additionally scholarly accomplishment in national examinations would be practical to explore(Ellis, 2008). 

1.2 Statement of the Problem 

Over the world, instructive analysts and professionals and additionally guardians and other training partners have communicated expanding worry about the scholastic accomplishment of students in elementary schools. Investigations of the connects of scholarly accomplishment have been a noteworthy worry in most created nations over the most recent four decades. Low scholastic measures constitute an issue that requests consideration. In Nigeria, the nature of training at state funded schools level is as yet a noteworthy issue in a few locale particularly those in pockets of neediness. Open concern is high finished the bleak execution of understudies particularly in rustic zones. 

Since the beginning of FPE in 2003, enrolment in schools had extraordinarily enhanced, a sign that numerous students who were at home had gotten the chance to go to class. In any case, understudy's scholastic accomplishment was still extremely poor in national examinations such regular passageway. The administration has not yet discovered an answer for this poor scholarly accomplishment which has kept on plagueing the instruction part in elementary school as well as at all levels. In light of this, the examination consequently tried to set up the impact of parent's financial status in deciding student's scholastic execution in elementary school level 

1.3 Purpose of the Study 

The motivation behind this examination was to build up the effect of parental financial status on understudy's scholarly execution in Primary Educationin Ife-Central Local Government Area of Osun State. This would empower the analyst to think of durable answers for social financial issues confronting instruction at essential level in the investigation zone. 

1.4 Objectives of the Study 

The accompanying goals guided this investigation: 

I) Investigate the effect of parent's instructive level on understudy's scholarly execution at elementary school level. 

ii) Establish the impact of parent's livelihoods on understudy's scholastic execution at grade school level. 

iii) Asses how parent's occupation influenced understudy's scholastic execution at grade school level 

iv) To set up measures that can be set up to enhance students scholarly execution in grade schools. 

1.5 Research Questions 

This examination looked to answer the accompanying inquiries: 

I) What social variables influence understudies scholarly execution in elementary schools.? 

ii) What monetary variables influence understudies scholarly execution in elementary schools? 

iii) What social elements influence student's scholarly execution in grade schools? 

iv) What measures can be set up to enhance understudies' scholarly execution in elementary schools? 

1.6 Research Hypothesis. 

HO1:There is no huge contrast between Parental financial status and the scholarly accomplishment of understudies. 

HO2:There is no huge contrast between Parental instructive foundation and the understudy's scholarly accomplishments. 

HO2:There is no huge contrast between Parental capability and the scholarly accomplishment of understudies.
1.7. Scope of the Study 

This investigation couldn't cover all the Secondary Schools in Ife-Central Local Government region of Osun state. Accordingly, it centers around understudies of the chose grade schools in the territory. 

Every one of these schools are arranged in Ife-Central Local Government zone of Osun state. 

Aside from this, this examination covers the impact of financial status of guardians on instructive accomplishment of students. In this manner, it doesn't center around some other persuasive factors on training, for example, the part of educational modules advancement, the impacts of showing helps and so forth that are associated with students scholastic execution. 

1.8. Significance of the Study 

This examination is expected to help kids to welcome the esteem that guardians financial status has on instructive accomplishment of understudies in elementary schools in order to empower them to decide a few purposes behind low execution of a few students in their scholarly works. 

It would likewise trigger guardians to comprehend the impact of a decent parental societal position on their youngsters scholarly exhibitions. The investigation would help in unraveling a portion of the distinction in the pupilsperformances coming about because of parent's financial status. 
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1.9 Operational Definition of Terms 

Financial Status: Defined as a man's general social position to which accomplishments in both the social and monetary area contribute. In this investigation it is utilized to allude to the Socio-Economic Status of the guardians or family dictated by accomplishments in wage, instruction, and word related. 

Family Background: Refers to the verifiable condition that youngsters are raised in. It's for the most part the historical backdrop of a given gathering of people whereby those people who have been poor all through have a tendency to acquire a similar mentality the kids as the rich likewise do the other way around to their kids and this influences the accomplishment of youngsters in school 

Scholastic Performance: it alludes to the imprints an understudy's accomplishes in the scholarly assignments given in school by educators. 

Instructive Achievement: Refers to the largest amount of training finished as far as the most abnormal amount of tutoring finished. 

Home Environment: This alludes to parental experience and desires for youngsters, articles and material conditions in the home for comfort and furthermore particular behavioral procedures helpful for learning. 

Instructive Status: This term is utilized for social procedures in which one accomplish social ability and individual development, carried on in a chose, controlled sitting which can be organized as a school or school. 


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  Parental Attitude: Parents demeanor to react in a qualities route to some boost in their social condition. A few reactions decide the way and way their youngsters are raised by them. Financial Status.

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