16 March 2018

AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE PROBLEMS OF PHYSICAL AND HEALTH EDUCATION TEACHING

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AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE PROBLEMS OF PHYSICAL AND HEALTH EDUCATION TEACHING IN SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ATAKUMOSA WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF OSUN STATE

https://www.educationinfo.com.ng/2018/03/an-investigation-into-problems-of-PHYSICAL-HEALTH-EDUCATION-teaching-in-sencondary-schools.html

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I wish to express my profound gratitude to the Almighty God, the Alpha and Omega for seeing me through this course of study, despite all odds
Also, my undiluted gratitude goes to my amiable supervisor in person of MR. SEGUN ADEYINKA who patiently guided me and pungently made necessary corrections without compromising the academic standards in the course of the write up of the project.
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My appreciation also goes to the Head of the Department DR. MRS. ADEKUNLEall the dedicated lecturers namely;VEN. ODESANMI, MR FAMOYO, MR. OJO J.P, MR. ODEYEMI B.A and MR. ADUBI A.B.for their excellent assistance offered during the course of this study.
I appreciate the effort of my loving and caring Father and mother, in person of MR. &MRS OJO for her parental guidance since the beginning of the course.
I thank all my brothers and sister, Tobi,  Olayiwola, Ayomide, For their various assistance during the course of the study, God bless you all.

Finally my appreciation goes to my entire course mates in the great department of Physical and Health Education,People like HarunaTaofeek, AfuyeJustinah, Osunmadewa Joy, and to others who had contributed towards making this endeavour a success, I register my profound gratitude.
            I acknowledge with deep apperception and immense contribution of my indispensable companioning person OluwadamilolaDaniel,I pray you will eat the fruit of your labour in Jesus Name.  (AMEN)


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page-    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -I
Certification-           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           II
Dedication-   -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -III
Acknowledgement- -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -IV
Table of Content-    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -VI
Abstract-      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -VIII
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION-    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           --          -1
1.1       Background of the Study-     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -1
1.2       Statement of the Problem-      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -5
1.3       Purpose of the Study- -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -8
1.4       Objectives of the Study-         -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -8
1.5       Research Questions-   -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -8
1.6       Hypotheses of the Study-       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -9
1.7       Significance of the Study-      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -9
1.8       Scope of the Study-    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -10
1.9       Operational Definitions of Terms-     -           -           -           -           -           -           -11
CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE-   -           -           -           -           -           -           -12
2.1       Introduction-   -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -12
2.2       Challenges Related to Resources in Physical Education-       -           -           -           -12
2.3       Teachers’ and Learner’ Attitudes towards Physical Education-        -           -           -14
2.4       Teachers’ Preparedness in Conducting Physical Education-  -           -           -           -16
2.5       Availability of Physical and Material Resources in Secondary Schools-       -           -19
2.6       Utilization of Physical and Material Resources for Effective Teaching and Learning and Students’ Performance.-  -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -22
2.7       Summary of Review of Related Literature-   -           -           -           -           -           -26
CHAPTER THREE
3.0       RESEARCH METHODOLOGY-     -           -           -           -           -           -           -27
3.1       Research Design-        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -27
3.2       POPULATION AND SAMPLYING TECHNIQUES-       -           -           -           -27
3.3       Research Instrument-  -           -           -           -           -           -           -           --          -28
3.4       Validity And Reliability Of Research Instrument-    -           -           -           -           -28
3.5       Data Collection Procedure-    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -29
3.6       Method Of Data Analysis-     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -29
CHAPTER FOUR
4.1       Data Analysis And Presentation-       -           -           -           -           -           -           -31
4.2       Distribution Of The Respondents By Sex-     -           -           -           -           -           -31
4.3       Testing Of Hypothesis-           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -38


CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS-     -           -           -           -50
5.1       Summary-        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -50
5.2       Conclusion-     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -51
5.3       Recommendations-     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -52
REFERENCES-         -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -54
APPEDIDIX- -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           --          -           -57

ABSTRACT
Despite the fact that the Ministry of Education provides Free Primary Education funds and formulates policies, the Institute of Curriculum Development incorporates P.E in the school curriculum and the Teachers` Service Commission (T.S.C) recruits and staffs public schools with P.E teachers. The central problem of this study was to identify the challenges facing the teaching and learning of physical education with a view of coming up with recommendations that can positively enhance the effective teaching and learning of the subject. The objectives were to; identify the challenges related to resources in the teaching and learning of physical education, find out the attitudes of teachers and pupils towards physical education and determine teachers‟ preparedness in handling physical education lessons. This study utilized a descriptive survey design. The descriptive survey provided qualitative information from a representative sample of the sampling frame by the use of an interview guide, observation checklist and questionnaires. The study was carried out in public primary schools of Bwiri/Nanguba Zone in Funyula, Busia County. The targeted respondents were the; eighteen (18) head teachers, one hundred and seventy-six (176) teachers and two thousand nine hundred and forty six (2,946) pupils in primary schools in Bwiri/Nanguba Zone. Fifteen (15) sampled schools took part in the study. The head teacher of each sampled school was interviewed; two (2) teachers and twenty (20) pupils from each sampled school filled a questionnaire. Interview schedules were used since they frequently give very high response rates. Both questionnaires and observation checklist were also used during the study. Through questionnaires, there is greater consistency therefore greater compatibility in the response. The checklist was used to ascertain the availability of the resources and the challenges therein. The research instruments were piloted in two (2) public primary schools from Bwiri/Nanguba Zone. The two (2) schools were not included in the study. Test-retest method was used to test the reliability of the questionnaire and Spearman rank order correlations were employed to compute the correlation coefficient. A correlation coefficient of 0.72 was obtained. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze quantitative data with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The results were presented using frequency tables, pie charts and bar graphs. Both quantitative and qualitative findings were reported based on the objectives of the study. The findings of the study indicated that the major challenge facing teaching and learning of PE was lack of enough facilities that could facilitate learning process. It is evident that majority of teachers had negative attitude towards teaching PE. Majority of teachers did not prepare PE professional documents hence PE programs inadequately handled towards improving learners‟ education and health since majority of teachers were not prepared to enhance teaching and learning of PE. The study concluded that teachers should collaborate and share information on how to improve and strengthen the delivery of PE programs in primary schools. The study recommended that head teachers should ensure that PE is taught in accordance to the ministry guidelines whose reinforcement should start immediately learners join the school in standard one.
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

This chapter describes the background of the study, the statement of the problem, the purpose of the study, objectives of the study, research questions, significance of the study, assumptions of the study, limitations, delimitations, theoretical framework, conceptual framework and definitions of central terms. 1.1 Background of the Study 

As per (Abdulkareen, 2017), Physical Education and Sport (PES) have various favorable circumstances connected with dynamic support. (Abimbade, 2016), noticed that physical instruction encourages understudies to create sense of pride, helps in incorporating social, psychological and physical development, creates information of the capacity of oxygen consuming and anaerobic physical projects in wellbeing, decidedly enhances confidence, and upgrades social, full of feeling and subjective improvement (Abimbade, 2016). Physical action keeps up sound joints and muscles with the goal that one can attempt their day by day exercises and be physically fit. 

Afolabi, (2005), in their examination, contend that doing vigorous, muscle-fortifying and bone-reinforcing physical action of no less than a tolerably extreme level can moderate the loss of bone thickness that accompanies age. Standard physical action diminishes the danger of creating write 2 diabetes and metabolic disorder a condition in which one has some blend of an excess of fat around the midriff, hypertension, low HDL cholesterol, high triglycerides, or high glucose (Ayo, 2011). Research shows that lower rates of these conditions are seen with 120 to 150 minutes per seven day stretch of at any rate direct force oxygen consuming action (Balabolola, 2007). Physical movement limits corpulence rates among understudy going to in schools (Berkum, 2013). (Berkum, 2013), shows that the consequences of PES can be comprehended regarding children‟s improvement in five areas: physical, way of life, social, full of feeling and intellectual advancement. 

Thicket and Burkett, (2010), composes that physical training should be viewed with an indistinguishable point of view from some other subject. (Chan, 2013), underscores that physical instruction can possibly enhance learners‟ survives donning encounters, building up their abilities and recognizing understudies with potentially shrouded gifts or those needing further help. She additionally expresses that physical training empowers understudies to enhance social-full of feeling abilities and gives chances to collaboration. In the World Summit on PE (1999), worldwide scientists featured contextual analysis prove concerning the advantages of physical instruction around the globe and its medical advantages to kids (Cook, 2012), Some of these advantages are; enhancing confidence and lessening hazardous propensities; decreasing the odds of early sexual action among young ladies and adolescent negative dispositions toward school and dropout rate; giving information of theoretical basic reasoning and averting wellbeing peril wounds. 

Coleman, (2O10), additionally bond the immense advantages got from Physical Education. Aside from the in advance of said benefits, there is enhancing school, empowering dispositions of decency, regard for others and esteeming solidarity in decent variety. As indicated by the Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development (KICD), Primary syllabus (2002), Physical Education empowers students to learn new abilities, obtain information and create uplifting state of mind through development. Through Physical Education, students create physical and neuromuscular aptitudes and perform able and proficient development through physical and mental co-appointment. Besides, through Physical Education, students utilize development as a medium of articulation and participate in creating both national; and universal game move for safeguarding of claim and different societies (KICD Primary syllabus, 2002). 

As indicated by Cronbac, (2014), advantage/cost proportion is the most generally utilized measuring stick of financial advantages of physical movement programs. (Denyer, 2009), contends that physical program is a piece of sound way of life, which may likewise incorporate wellbeing risk assessment and propensities alteration anticipates sustenance and weight control, stretch administration, halting smoking and hypertension control. 
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A few investigations in view of money saving advantage proportions upheld that expansive wellbeing bolster programs are successfully favorable and in this manner the benefits of wellbeing support exceed the expenses of the program (Earthman &Lemasters, 2015). 

Fagbamiye, (2006), expressed that Physical Education was not a primary worry in 1990s. Also, generalist instructors with unassuming abilities in Physical Education strategies every now and again instruct Physical Education. 

An examination completed by Fagbamiye, (2006), contrasting the difficulties looked by instructors instructing Physical Education in Kenya and Victoria in Australia recognized that the difficulties are similar crosswise over nations and that educators from both Kenya and Victoria feel Physical Education is underestimated contrasted with other customary educational modules subjects. Be that as it may, Physical Education in Victoria is a key Learning Area (KLA) and is in this way given more conspicuousness. 

InDenyer, (2009), it is uncommon to discover completely fledged Physical Education exercises either in the classroom or game field. Rather, in most, if not every single optional school, the Physical Education lessons are utilized as a part of the instructing and learning of the examinable subjects. In this way, there is have to research and distinguish challenges confronting the instructing and learning Physical Education in optional schools with the reason for finding an answer. The investigation would decide challenges identified with assets, instructors and learners‟ states of mind and teachers‟ readiness for physical training. 

1.2 Statement of the Problem 


Physical Education (PE), as per Bailey (2006), is a vital subject in the comprehensive improvement of a student. The effect of Physical Education to the strengthening of students can be bore witness to by the physical, social, full of feeling and intellectual advancement of the students (Earthman &Lemasters, 2015).The connection between's Physical Education and examinable scholarly subjects is incredible, in that students wind up dynamic members during the time spent learning. In spite of the way that the Ministry of Education gives Free PrimaryEducation (FPE) supports and details approaches, the Nigeria Institute of Curriculum Development joins Physical Education in the school educational programs and the Teachers` Service Commission (T.S.C) enlists and staffs state funded schools with Physical Education instructors. 

The difficulties confronting the successful instructing and learning of Physical Education out in the open optional schools mirror the territory of Physical Education educating and learning and the world as a rule. The difficulties can be ascribed to different elements that prevent the successful instructing and learning of Physical Education. finances and details arrangements, the Nigeria Institute of Curriculum Development joins Physical Education in the school educational modules and the Teachers` Service Commission (T.S.C) selects and staffs government funded schools with Physical Education educators. 

The difficulties confronting the viable instructing and learning of Physical Education in government funded schools mirror the territory of Physical Education instructing and learning and the world by and large. The difficulties can be credited to different variables that thwart the successful instructing and learning of Physical Education. 

As indicated by the archive exhibited by the International Council of Sport Science and Physical Education, some national governments have either rejected off Physical Education from the curricular or diminished educational programs time allotment (Fagbamiye, 2006). 

A portion of the issues confronting instructing and learning of physical and wellbeing training are: 

i. There was absence of enough offices that could encourage learning process. Be that as it may, such learning assets as nets, Physical and wellbeing Education course books, syllabus, PHE units, were insufficient in larger part of the schools. Subsequently, it was excessively troublesome for educators, making it impossible to direct preparing because of absence of such fundamental offices. 

ii. It was watched that despite the fact that lion's share of the government funded schools had playfields for doing PHE exercises, peer support and PHE packs stockpiling were insufficient. 

iii. The states of mind of instructors and students towards physical training. It is apparent that greater part of instructors had negative mentality towards educating PHE. Maybe greater part of educators focused just on different subjects and considered PHE as an exercise in futility since it was not examinable, and these is coursing step back of performing admirably of the understudies. 

iv. Lack of responsibility towards preparing of PHE since dominant part of educators did not consider PHE as a vital angle towards learners‟ physical development and improvement. 

v. Teacher's readiness in taking care of physical instruction lessons. Lion's share of educators did not plan PHE proficient reports consequently PHE programs were insufficiently dealt with towards enhancing learners‟ training and wellbeing since dominant part of instructors were not set up to upgrade educating and learning of PHE. 

1.3 Purpose of the Study 


The reason for this examination is to research the issues confronting the instructing and learning of Physical Education out in the open optional schools in Atakunmosa Local Government Area of Osun State, with a perspective of emphatically improving the compelling instructing and learning of the subject. 

1.4 Objectives of the Study 


This examination was guided by the accompanying destinations: 

(I) Identify the difficulties identified with assets in the instructing and learning of physical training. 

(ii) Determine educators and learners‟ states of mind towards physical training. 

(iii) Determine the teacher‟s readiness in dealing with physical training lessons. 

1.5 Research Questions 


The examination tried to answer the accompanying exploration questions: 
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i. What are the difficulties identified with assets in the instructing and learning of physical training? 

ii. What are the mentalities of educators and students in the instructing and learning of physical training? 

iii. What is the level of teachers‟ readiness in taking care of physical training lessons in school? 

1.6 Hypotheses of the Study 

The accompanying invalid speculations have been detailed and each tried at 0.5 level of noteworthiness. 

HO.1 There is no huge distinction in the showing assets of physical instruction assets in auxiliary schools. 

HO2. There is no huge distinction in the instructors demeanor towards educating of physical training in auxiliary schools in view of working background of educators. 

HO3. There is no noteworthy distinction in light of a legitimate concern for understudies towards physical training. 

1.7 Significance of the Study 

The discoveries of the investigation are required to add to the headway of learning about physical training educational programs advancement. It would likewise look to discover answers for the poor planning for physical training by educators, absence of assets, and negative states of mind towards physical instruction, among different difficulties that face the instructing and learning of physical training. Basically, the examination may prompt the change and proficient upgrade of techniques of instructing and learning of the physical training subject. The investigation might be of quick advantages to quality confirmation and principles partners in the detailing of future physical training approaches and educational programs viewpoints. 


1.8 Scope of the Study 


The investigation covers Five Secondary schools situated inside Atakunmosa West Local Government in Osun State, 

It is delimited to understudies in Secondary schools of open and non-public schools, The investigation concentrated on challenges confronting the instructing and learning of Physical and Health Education in Secondary schools. PHE Teachers‟ and understudies of this Zone were considered. 

These school that will be review are; 

1. Ilesa Grammar School, Ilesa 

2. St. Margret Secondary School, Ilesa 

3. C.A.C Commercial High School, Ilesa. 

4. St. Paul's High School, Ilesa 

5. St. Timothy High School, Ilesa. 

1.9 Operational Definitions of Terms 

Difficulties: Barriers/issues influencing positive results. 

Accommodation Technique: testing and regulating survey to educators who are available. 

Relationship: an association or closeness of thoughts or factors in subjects. 

Educational modules: The learning exercises completed in a school 

Compelling instructing and taking in: the degree to which the set objectives or destinations of a school program are proficient. 

Strengthening: giving students more control over their life and circumstance. 

Comprehensive Development: the entire instructive development parts of a student e.g. social, moral, mental, physical. 
Effect: the result/impact or impact in educating.
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