4 January 2018




Project code: educationinfo002

Permalink ? https://www.educationinfo.com.ng/2018/01/effect-of-herbicide-growth-and-development-0f-amaranthus-and-zea-mays.html


A major factor limiting yield and quality of maize (Zea mays) is the spread of weeds in maize fields. Thus, two field experiments were conducted at Osun state college of education ilesa during 2015 to study the efficiency of four pre-emergence herbicides at different rates:Acetochlor 84% EC (Harness) at 840, 1260 and 1680 g a.i. fed. 1(feddan= 4200 m2), Sulcotrione 15% SL (Prestige) at 150, 225 and 300 g a.i. fed. ,Metribuzin 70% WG (Marrin El-Nasser) at 210, 315 and 420 ga.i. fed. 1and Pendimethalin 45.5%CS (Stomp Extra) 682.5, 1023.8 and 1365g a.i. fed. 1 as well as hand hoeing (twice) and unweeded control on yield, yield components and quality characters of maize. Also, study the residual effect of the four herbicides and their doses on the following winter crops wheat and broad bean.
The data revealed that the herbicides used at different rates gave better and wide weed control spectrum of total annual weeds than hand-hoeing and the unweeded control. Dry weight of total annual weeds was generally correlated with herbicide rates, whereas metribuzin at the highest rate (420 ga.i. fed 1) gave (85.7, 82.2%) controlling effect, while at the lowest rate of pindemithalin (682.5 g a.i. fed 1) gave (57.0, 51.8%) controlling effect, respectively at first survey in both seasons. The yields in all herbicides treatments were significantly greater than the untreated control and there were no adverse effects on grain yield and its quality (Carbohydrate% and protein%), whereas metribuzin at 420 ga.i. fed 1 gave the highest grain yield (29.3, 28.4 ardab fed 1) (ardab = 140 kg), while pendimethalin at rate 682.5 g a.i. fed 1gave the lowest grain yield (18.8, 19.4 ardab fed 1).
Regarding the impact of the herbicides used on the following winter crops, results revealed no significant differences innumber of plants per square meter for both wheat and broad bean compared with plots after maize that were devoted to hand-hoeing or to the unweeded control. Therefore, it could be concluded that maize plots that were treated with Acetochlor, Sulcotrione, Metribuzin and Pendimethalin could be sown with wheat or broad bean after harvesting treated maize plants without any harmful effect.


i    Title page                  
ii   Certification
iii Dedication
iv Acknowledgement
v   Table of content


2.0    Resistance @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
2.1       Her@@@@@@@@@@@@@@e Defined
2.2       Her@@@@@@@@@@@@de selectivity
2.3       H@@@@@@@@@@@@ity
2.4       Ta@@@@@@@@@@@nce
2.5       Target-site Resistance crops
2.6       Non#############stance

2.7       Cro###########################sistances
2.8       Envi@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@in Crops

3.0       Material and Method
3.1       Effect of Herbicide on Weeds
3.2       Yield component and quality character
3.3       The Residual Effect of Maize Herbicide on winter crops
3.4       Statistical Analysis

4.0    Efffect of 2,4-D Application on Number and Fresh Weight of

Slender Amaranth goosefoot and prickly burweed plants
4.1  Estimation of Maize fresh weight(g) and photosynthetic pigment contents(mg/g.f.wt) of maize leaves after 2,4-D Application on its Associated weed
5.0       Summary
5.1       Conclusion
5.2       Refrences


Maize (Zea mays) is the second most essential grain edit in Egypt as far as aggregate sustenance creation. It is developed for grub and in addition for grain. The grains of maize are utilized as a part of an assortment of routes by the individuals. Weeds are a noteworthy issue in trim creation and definitely diminish edit yield. Hence, weed control is an imperative administration rehearse for maize generation that ought to be completed to guarantee ideal grain yield. Yield misfortunes because of weeds have been accounted for up to 35 % (Oerke, 2005; Dangwal, et al. 2010). In this way, 

in maize generation, it is important to embrace control of weeds which cause misfortunes of maize grain yield. The utilization of herbicides may decrease such misfortunes, as herbicides may diminish the weed invasion gave that the 

herbicide-treated weeds are not herbicide safe. Preceding the despread utilization of synthetic herbicides, social controls, for example, modifying soil pH, saltiness or ripeness levels were utilized to control weeds. Weed is a typical term for any wild plant, especially an undesired plant, paddling in developed ground, where it contends with edit plants for soil utrients, light and water.Slender amaranth (Amaranthus viridis), goosefoot (Chenopodium collection) and thorny burweed (Xanthium 

spinosum) are troublesome wide leaved weeds connect with maize development (Malik et al. 2006). Amaranthus viridis is a cosmopolitan weed have a place with family amaranthaceae, Chenopodium collection is a quickly developing weed have a place with family chenopodiaceae , though .Xanthium spinosum is a harmful weed in asteraceae family. 

Most herbicides are connected as water-based splashes utilizing ground hardware. A few herbicides are manufactured emulates of regular plant hormones. Herbicides are weed executioners used to murder undesirable plants (Kellogg et al., 2000). Malik et al. (2006) detailed that herbicides demonstrated compelling in controlling weeds and delivered moderately more weight of cobs of maize, number of grains/cob, grain weight, natural yield and grain yield. Particular herbicides slaughter particular targets, while leaving the coveted harvest moderately unharmed. Herbicide utilize has without a doubt added to edit yield increments and the productivity of generation (Andrew, 2012). Some considerable advantages can be increased using herbicides to oversee undesirable vegetation. On the off chance that herbicides are not utilized appropriately, harm might be caused to edit plants, particularly if too huge a dosage is utilized, or if splashing happens amid a period when the yield species is touchy to the herbicide. Unintended however monetarily imperative harm to edit plants is here and there an outcome of the improper utilization of herbicides (Robert, 1941 and Mehmeti, 2004). Herbicides have distinctive methods of activities on proteins (impetuses of organic responses), this implies the objective catalysts may never again work legitimately, or by any means. Herbicide misshape catalysts atoms somehow, so segment chemicals for the response collect and might be straightforwardly or in a roundabout way harming. Nonappearance of the response's items will limit development, either through starvation of key building pieces or in light of the fact that the response makes chemicals which ordinarily ensure the plant (Santra and Baumann, 2008). 

Auxin is a plant development controller that controls cell broadening, division and plant advancement through the vegetation cycle. Over decades, the supposed auxin herbicides had opposed all endeavors to clarify their atomic connections and the biochemical and physiological premise of their phytotoxicity (Cobb, 1992). 

Auxin herbicides began another time of weed control in present day trim creation because of their fundamental versatility in the plant and to their particular activity, specially against dicot weeds in grain crops ( Cobb, 1992 and Grossmann, 2007). Auxin herbicides copy the activity of the fundamental auxin, indole-3-acidic corrosive (IAA) in higher plants (Cobb, 1992). Be that as it may, they are durable, especially because of their higher soundness in the plant, and, in this manner, more viable than IAA. Auxins empower an assortment of development and formative procedures when display at low focuses at the cell locales of activity. In any case, with expanding fixation and auxin action in the tissue, development is exasperates and the plant is mortally harmed (Grossmann, 2003). Right now, no one truly knows correctly how the auxin-like herbicides slaughter helpless plants. Likewise with most impacts of plant hormones, it presumably has a great deal to do with the plant species. All in all, grasses are considerably less delicate to engineered auxin herbicides than are dicots.


Project code: educationinfo002


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